A hillside dwelling overlooking the picturesque Rhone Valley in southern France attracted our ancestors, both Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons (modern humans), around 54,000 years ago, a new study suggests. Similar tools from the same period have been found nearly 1,900 miles away in modern Israel and in Lebanon, indicating that modern humans with a common culture traveled along one of the most important natural migration corridors of the ancient world approximately at that time. This lecture presents an updated chapter of human history.