Iran and the U.S. have been estranged for over 40 years.   Relations were broken in 1980, and all subsequent attempts to change that hostility into something more productive for both sides have not worked.   Chest-beating and shouting hollow slogans have done nothing but prolong the downward cycle of futility.  For better or worse, both sides now know hostility and seem unable to find a different path.  A better way forward will require breaking this powerful cycle.   What are our best options?

(For other classes in this series, see class # 337, 347, 351, 361, 374)